In such cases without any symptoms, simple renal cysts are usually left alone and do not need any further tests.
The cause of renal cysts is not known, although age is a major risk factor. In rare cases, renal cysts may require treatment due to infection, bleeding, or enlargement. If treatment is required, your doctor may use sclerotherapy or surgery to drain the cyst and take steps to prevent its recurrence.
Renal cysts are usually left alone and do not require treatment unless they are causing symptoms or harming kidney function. Your doctor may recommend hormonal therapy for preventing future ovarian cysts. Ovarian cysts often disappear without treatment.
Small instruments placed near the pubic bone allow the doctor to then remove the cyst. This minimally invasive surgical procedure allows your doctor to see and remove the cyst by making a small incision in the abdomen rather than a long cut. Oftentimes, ovarian cysts are detected during a routine pelvic exam.
If you experience any of the symptoms of ovarian cysts, call a gynecologist. In rare cases a cyst that twists or ruptures may cause serious complications warranting emergency surgery. Cysts often disappear on their own without treatment, but in some cases they may require surgical removal.
Konstadoulakis MM, Gomatos IP, Albanopoulos K, Alexakis N, Leandros E. Laparoscopic fenestration for the treatment of patients with severe adult polycystic liver disease. Fiamingo P, Tedeschi U, Veroux M, Cillo U, Brolese A, Da Rold A, et al. Laparoscopic treatment of simple hepatic cysts and polycystic liver disease. Mazza et al reported that laparoscopic unroofing or marsupialization (66 patients) completely relieved symptoms from either simple lesions or PCLD, with the procedure’s morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates being, respectively, 2%, 0%, and 2% for patients with simple cysts, and 25%, 0%, and 5% for patients with PCLD.
Table 1. Series of Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Unroofing of Liver Cysts (Open Table in a new window) Several small series of patients undergoing laparoscopic unroofing of simple hepatic cysts have reported cure rates of 90% or higher. Hepatic cysts are usually found as an incidental finding on imaging or at the time of laparotomy.
The hydatid cyst develops an outer layer of inflammatory tissue and an inner germinal membrane that produces daughter cysts. These cystic tumors are lined with biliary-type cuboidal or columnar cells and are surrounded by ovarianlike stroma. Because these cysts seldom contain bile, the current hypothesis is that the microhamartomas fail to develop normal connections with the biliary tree.
The cysts are lined by biliary-type epithelium (see the image below), and perhaps result from progressive dilatation of biliary microhamartomas. Most cysts are benign (not cancer). If the cyst is small (about the size of a plum or smaller) and if it looks benign on the sonogram, your doctor may decide to do a laparoscopy.
If you’re past menopause and have an ovarian cyst, your doctor will probably want you to have surgery. If you’re having periods, only mild symptoms and the cyst is functional, you probably won’t need to have surgery.